Sexually Transmitted Infections

If you are a Medical Provider, and need to report an STI, please use this form: Confidential Morbidity Report

 

What are Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)?

How do people get STIs?

What are the signs and symptoms of STIs?

How can STIs be prevented?

What are the three most common STIs?

Does having a STI make me more susceptible to HIV?

Where can I get tested and/or treated?

Other Links


What are STIs?

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections spread mainly through sexual or intimate physical contact. It is common for people to not know they have an STI, as they may seem healthy. Sometimes there are no symptoms or they may appear weeks or months after the sexual encounter. STIs are caused by bacteria, viruses and/or parasites. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most common STIs are chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chancroid, genital herpes, genital warts (caused by human papillomavirus, HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B.

How do people get STIs?

  • Vaginal, anal or oral sex
    • With oral sex people can get STIs from performing or receiving

What are the signs and symptoms of STIs?

It's important to remember that STIs often have no signs or symptoms, however some signs to watch out for are:

  • Pain, burning, or itching around the vagina, penis, or anus
  • Sores, warts, blisters, swelling, or a rash on or around the penis, vagina, anus, or mouth
  • A bad discharge or strange smell from the vagina or penis

 How can STIs be prevented?

The only way to ensure avoiding contracting STIs is to abstain from sexual contact or to engage in a mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is found uninfected. For vaginal, anal and oral sex you can reduce the risk of transmission by consistently and correctly using latex condoms (both male and female), polyurethane (plastic) condoms and plastic or latex barriers like dental dams. If you have any signs or symptoms of STIs refrain from sex and do not touch the sores (if present). Sexually active individuals should be tested yearly for STIs.


Three most common STIs

Chlamydia

Gonorrhea

Syphilis

 

STIs and HIV

Having an STI makes a person 2 to 5 times more at risk of contracting HIV. Conversely, when an individual infected with HIV contracts an STI, he or she is more likely to spread HIV. A male with gonorrhea and HIV has 10 times more concentration of HIV in the semen than does a male with only HIV. http://www.cdc.gov/std/hiv/

  

Other Links

Other reportable STIs and conditions

http://www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/Documents/Reportable_Diseases_Conditions.pdf

 

Talking with your partner(s):

http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/std/talking_with_partners.htm

http://www.sfcityclinic.org/stdbasics/partners.asp

http://inspot.org/Home.aspx?regionid=6&sitelvl=1

 

Other Resources

CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/std/

NIH: http://health.nih.gov/topic/SexuallyTransmittedDiseases

WHO: http://www.who.int/topics/sexually_transmitted_infections/en/

Planned Parenthood: https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex

CA Department of Public Health: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/discond/Pages/SexuallyTransmittedDiseases.aspx

http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/std/Pages/default.aspx

The Body: http://www.thebody.com/

 

Penny Borenstein, MD, MPH

Health Officer/Public Health Director

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