Scope of the Problem
According to the most recent report from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), there are more than 567,000 people experiencing homelessness on any given night in this country. In California, according to this same report, there were 151,278 persons homeless in 2019, up from 129,972 persons in 2018. And in the San Luis Obispo area, the most recent statistics indicate that around 1,483 people are without a home on any given night.
While there are official definitions of homelessness, probably everyone has some idea of what it could mean to be without a home.
But not everyone is aware of the costs.
For the individual or family without a home, the impact can be devastating. Imagine for a moment what it would mean in your own life to be without a place to sleep, to shower, to keep your clothing and possessions, to build your life.
According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness, families experiencing homelessness are generally similar to other, housed families living in poverty. In fact, many poor families – homeless or not – share similar characteristics: they are usually headed by a single woman with limited education, are usually young, and experience high rates of domestic violence and mental illness.
Some families living in poverty fall into homelessness as a result of some unforeseen financial challenge – such as a death in the family, a lost job, or an unexpected bill – which creates a situation where the family cannot maintain housing.
The COVID-19 pandemic has compounded these problems, leading to a loss of economic security for many due to lost jobs and income. An increasing number of households are struggling to meet mortgage and rent payments, with some facing eviction and homelessness. In addition, because many people who are homeless are older adults or have underlying medical conditions, they may be at increased risk for complications from COVID than the general population.
In addition to the direct impact on individuals and families who are without a home, enormous costs accrue to our society in general from the problem of homelessness. These costs are incurred in the areas of medical treatment, hospitalization, police intervention, incarceration, the provision of emergency shelters, and other areas.
On the Path toward Solutions
As you might expect, a problem of this magnitude and cost has attracted a great deal of attention across the country – from federal, state, and local government agencies and initiatives; to the efforts of individual citizens who advocate for homeless individuals, or donate to and volunteer for charitable organizations.
In fact, the problem is so complex, and related services are provided by so many organizations (both public and private) that improved coordination of these efforts is a major concern. Improved coordination of services can help reduce duplicative efforts, ensure appropriate accessibility, and achieve optimal cost-effectiveness.
In 1987, Congress passed the first federal law specifically addressing homelessness. The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, later renamed the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, provides federal financial support for a variety of programs to meet the many needs of individuals and families who are homeless. Although HUD did not initially impose any requirements for systemic planning at the local level, in 1994 the agency recognized the need for improved coordination and began requiring that communities come together to submit a single, comprehensive application for HUD funding. HUD’s intent in creating this structured application process was to stimulate community-wide planning and coordination of programs for individuals and families who are homeless, and gave rise to the Continuum of Care (CoC) concept.
According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness, “A Continuum of Care is a regional or local planning body that coordinates housing and services funding for homeless families and individuals.”
Commonly Used Acronyms